Imperialismo computacional. Recopilación de enlaces, octubre 2015 (1).

Aunque ya no está bajo nuestro foco de atención (al menos con la intensidad de otras épocas, pero nos sigue interesando, como no podría ser de otra manera), el tema del imperialismo computacional sigue siendo objeto de múltiples publicaciones. Las reseñamos en esta entrada, aunque por falta de tiempo no  hemos leído ninguna de ellas.

1.Imperialismo computacional 1. La visión de ED sobre este tema.

2. Imperialismo  computacional 2. Un nuevo artículo científico. 

The Growing Importance of Social Skills in the Labor Market

David J. Deming

Abstract: The slow growth of high-paying jobs in the U.S. since 2000 and rapid advances in computer technology have sparked fears that human labor will eventually be rendered obsolete. Yet while computers perform cognitive tasks of rapidly increasing complexity, simple human interaction has proven difficult to automate. In this paper, I show that the labor market increasingly rewards social skills. Since 1980, jobs with high social skill requirements have experienced greater relative growth throughout the wage distribution. Moreover, employment and wage growth has been strongest in jobs that require high levels of both cognitive skill and social skill. To understand these patterns, I develop a model of team production where workers “trade tasks” to exploit their comparative advantage. In the model, social skills reduce coordination costs, allowing workers to specialize and trade more efficiently. The model generates predictions about sorting and the relative returns to skill across occupations, which I test and confirm using data from the NLSY79. The female advantage in social skills may have played some role in the narrowing of gender gaps in labor market outcomes since 1980.

Comentarios sobre el artículo en un blog.

3. Imperialismo computacional 3. Libro sobre el tema.

Por el título parecería que este autor va a hablar de la Sociedad del Ocio. Sin embargo, por una frase de la presentación que destacamos  en negrita no parece ser el caso.

Título. The Age of Em: Work, Love and Life When Robots Rule the Earth Hardcover – April 1, 2016

Robots may one day rule the world, but what is a robot-ruled Earth like? Many think the first truly smart robots will be brain emulations or <“ems.>” Scan a human brain, then run a model with the same connections on a fast computer, and you have a robot brain, but recognizably human. Train an em to do some job and copy it a million times: an army of workers is at your disposal. When they can be made cheaply, within perhaps a century, ems will displace humans in most jobs. In this new economic era, the world economy may double in size every few weeks. Some say we can’t know the future, especially following such a disruptive new technology, but Professor Robin Hanson sets out to prove them wrong. Applying decades of expertise in physics, computer science, and economics, he uses standard theories to paint a detailed picture of a world dominated by ems. While human lives don’t change greatly in the em era, em lives are as different from ours as our lives are from those of our farmer and forager ancestors. Ems make us question common assumptions of moral progress, because they reject many of the values we hold dear. Read about em mind speeds, body sizes, job training and career paths, energy use and cooling infrastructure, virtual reality, aging and retirement, death and immortality, security, wealth inequality, religion, teleportation, identity, cities, politics, law, war, status, friendship and love. This book shows you just how strange your descendants may be, though ems are no stranger than we would appear to our ancestors. To most ems, it seems good to be an em.

4.Imperialismo computacional 4. 

Los tres artículos anteriores están escritos por un experto  en negocios  digitales o economistas.   Es decir desde el punto de vista de las ciencias sociales.

Gran parte de los avances en Inteligencia Artificial que están permitiendo el uso de máquinas en lo que antes era territorio exclusivo del ser humano se están realizando gracias a técnicas de aprendizaje de máquinas (Machine Learning).

Los investigadores provenientes de las ciencias sociales, no expertos en IA no  suelen citar el siguiente hecho: Similarly, many problems in machine learning are NP hard, but are yet solved all the time by current heuristics (see here for more)….While finding a Nash equilibrium is considered a hard computational problem, economists like to point out (as Eva Tardos told me recently) that there is milk on the shelves in stores, which means that producers and consumers managed somehow to come to an equilibrium where the market clears. (Interestingly, it seems that the process in which people do so is not far from the same heuristics used in machine learning.)

¿ Como es posible que problemas NP-Duros se estén resolviendo y estén permitiendo  los avances señalados ?.

Similarly, machine learning is mostly about trying to do tasks that humans already succeed in. One could also argue that as a society we design rules that would make achieving equilibrium tractable, and perhaps for this reason we use a fixed price for milk as opposed to some complicated contracts.

So is hardness the rule or the exception? I don’t really know. Perhaps the physicists should decide, as the problems they study come from nature, who presumably doesn’t have any bias toward hardness or easiness. Or does she? After all, nature needs to compute as well (at least in the forward direction). Random constraint satisfaction problems, such as random 3SAT, seem to be a meeting point for physicists, computational complexity folks, cryptographers, and more

Son extractos de una interesante entrada en un blog que aporta el punto de vista de la complejidad computacional, más teórico que práctico.

Relacionado. Para algunos la existencia de ML exige un cambio en la definición de algoritmo. No lo tengo claro, pero tampoco tengo tiempo para discutirlo.

5.Sobre el futuro de internet

6.Wifi. Seguridad. 

7.Whatsapp. Privacidad. 

8. Aplicaciones de Apple. Seguridad. 

9. Amazon se pasa a la distribución física.

10. La carta de Apple sobre Google y los problemas de privacidad que supone el modelo de negocio de éste buscador (y otras aplicaciones gratuitas).  

No hablan de los problemas que hemos tenido nosotros (y seguimos teniendo), del atropello al usuario que supone cederle todas las externalidades que provoca el mal diseño, el diseño chapucero del buscador (que con sus búsquedas inversas, realizadas con el fin de inflar de manera fraudulenta, en mi opinión, los resultados del buscador, sólo generan falso testimonio y calumnia, asociando a los usuarios con todo tipo de actividades ilegales con las que no tienen nada que ver), y de otras aplicaciones, como Google Webmaster tools, que por cierto han cambiado de  nombre.

Plus: Delitos informáticos. Espiar los dispositivos electrónicos del cónyuge es ilegal

¿ Llegaremos entonces al sensor electrónico en las partes correspondientes, versión moderna de artilugios cuyo nombre no queremos citar, pero que el lector se podrá imaginar ?.

¡¡ Señoras y señores !!, hay que cambiar la mentalidad sobre ésto: ¿ acaso asusta la competencia o que ?.  :-).


Una respuesta to “Imperialismo computacional. Recopilación de enlaces, octubre 2015 (1).”

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