Emprendedores. Más moral que el Alcoyano.

1. ¿ Inteligencia lógico-matemática del tipo CI o IQ ? No.

¿ Inteligencia Emocional à la Coleman ? No.

¿ Capacidad de crear Redes Sociales ? Tampoco.

Ninguno de estos factores es determinante para el éxito profesional: lo único determinante es la automotivación sin incentivos, la capacidad de resistencia ante condiciones adversas, en definitiva, tener más moral que el Alcoyano. Perdían 13-0, a falta de  un minuto y con el árbitro en contra, seguían pensando que podían ganar, corriendo cómo el que más…

Al  menos esto es lo que afirman en un paper, sobre el que otro bloguero ha comentado:

A very interesting paper (or here) by  Carmit Segal shows that one of the best predictors of professional success is intrinsic motivation  (auto-motivation) in a lack of incentive.

Título. Motivation, Test Scores, and Economic Success.

Abstract.

This paper argues that low-stakes test scores, available in surveys, may be partially determined by test-taking motivation, which is associated with personality traits but not with cognitive ability. Therefore, such test score distributions may not be informative regarding cognitive ability distributions. Moreover, correlations, found in survey data, between high test scores and economic success may be partially caused by favorable personality traits. To demonstrate these points, I use the coding speed test that was administered without incentives to National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY) participants. I suggest that due to its simplicity its scores may especially depend on individuals’ test-taking motivation. I show that controlling for conventional measures of cognitive skills, the coding speed scores are correlated with future earnings of male NLSY participants. Moreover, the coding speed scores of highly motivated, though less educated, population (potential enlists to the armed forces) are higher than NLSY participants’ scores. I then use controlled experiments to show that when no performance-based incentives are provided, participants’ characteristics, but not their cognitive skills,  invested in the coding speed test. Thus, participants with the same ability (measured by their scores on an incentivized test) have signicantly different scores on tests without performance based incentives.

Extractos

“Classical economic theory predicts that if an action, like taking a standardized test, requires effort, then without performance-based incentives individuals will invest the lowest effort possible in performing the action. Therefore, one might expect that scores on low-stakes tests (tests administered without performance-based incentives) would be uninformative about an individual’s cognitive ability, and thus that low-stakes tests scores would be uncorrelated with test-takers’future economic outcomes.”
 
Secondly, in order to rule out IQ effects, tests had to be easy.
 
“Ideally, to investigate whether test-takers differ in their intrinsic motivation to take a test, we would like to find a test such that all test-takers have the knowledge necessary to correctly answer all questions if they so desire. The coding speed test seems a likely candidate to fulfill this requirement. It seems likely that everyone who knows how to read has the knowledge to correctly answer questions on the test. Therefore, due to its simplicity, speed becomes a good dummy of intrinsic motivation”

Y de las  conclusiones.

The experimental results show that some individuals do not try their best when no performance based incentives are provided, while others do. The individuals that do not try their best are not the least able ones. If this behavior does not depend on a particular test, then all low-stakes test scores will measure a combination of cognitive and non-cognitive skills.

This suggests that inferences from test score distributions to ability distributions may be questionable. Unless evidence is provided that all test-takers tried their best or other controls are used, caution should be exercised when interpreting results where test scores are either the dependent or the independent variable.

Not all the implications of the results presented in this paper are negative. In particular, as long as the purpose of using test scores is to have a measure of (unobserved) individual characteristics important for economic success, low-stakes test scores may even be a better measure than previously assumed.

Not only low-stakes test scores combine cognitive and non-cognitive measures, the environment in which they are obtained (i.e., no explicit performance-based incentives and no explicit monitoring) probably resembles the typical work place to a large degree. Workers that invest high effort in this environment and have the necessary skills are probably more valuable. 

Comentario.

Todo esto ya lo dijo Cela repetidas veces, de manera mucho más resumida pero no menos expresiva:  Quien resiste, gana.  Este era su lema.

Lema que han aplicado uno tras otro los grandes innovadores. Por ejemplo  Dyson, del que ya hemos hablado: He Spent five years developing the cleaner, and built 5,127 prototypes. Sí, has leído bien, CINCO MIL CIENTO VEINTISIETE prototipos hasta que dio con lo  que buscaba. Nada nuevo funciona bien a la primera.

Este lema, dada la crítica situación es ahora más de aplicación que nunca (por descontado, no solo a emprendedores). Y ojo lector, aunque este nunca quizás pueda sonar un poco extremo, así es: todas las otras crisis, posiblemente más duras que la actual, son ya historia. A todos los efectos, la más importante, la que cuenta es siempre la presente.

Disclaimer.

El valor del resultado que comentamos es discutible y debe de ser tomado con prudencia. De hecho, todo resultado que intente explicar el éxito  profesional lo es.  Lo único que sabemos con certeza en este campo, que en realidad interesa mucho más a unas culturas que a otras, es que para que uno tenga éxito o triunfe, miles o millones deben de “fracasar” (éxito y fracaso, conceptos borrosos dónde los haya, en el contexto de una investigación científica). Nos guste o no nos guste, lo único que da valor al éxito de unos es el fracaso de los demás. La vida es así y si fuese de otra manera nadie querría vivirla.  

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