Desarrollo. Sobre la evolución de la Banca en EEUU.

Ayer hablábamos sobre el sistema de Banca Islámica. Hoy toca hablar sobre la historia del sistema bancario de EEUU, con una trayectoria diferente del resto de la Banca Occidental.

Titulo. Banks, free banks and U.S Economic growth.

Abstract. 

The “Federalist financial revolution” may have jump-started the U.S. economy into modern growth, but the Free Banking System (1837-1862) did not play a direct role in sustaining it. Despite lowering entry barriers and extending banking into developing regions, we find in county-level data that free banks had little or no effect on growth. The result is not just a symptom of the era, as state-chartered banks seem to have strong and positive effects on manufacturing and urbanization 

Extracto. 

…This leads one to question whether all finance is good finance, and whether weak finance lowers growth…

Cierto, buena pregunta. Y en el artículo la responden estudiando el efecto del sistema bancario sobre el crecimiento económico. Concluyen que el sistema de banca libre que funcionó en EEUU entre 1837 y 1862 no tuvo ningún efecto. Sin embargo el, coexistente en el mismo periodo, sistema de state-chartered bank  si tuvo efectos apreciables.

En el siguiente párrafo extraído de este enlace nos aclaran que es un State-Chartered bank.

A state-chartered bank is a financial institution that receives its charter from a state authority such as the Arkansas State Bank Department.  State-chartered banks are supervised jointly by their state chartering authority and either the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) or the Federal Reserve System.  A state-chartered bank that chooses to become a member of the Federal Reserve System is supervised by the Federal Reserve.  As an alternative, a bank can choose to organize as a national bank with a charter issued by the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency.  This agency, commonly referred to as the OCC, is a bureau of the U.S.Department of the Treasury.  In addition to its chartering authority, the OCC supervises national banks.  This choice of state or national charter for commercial banks is referred to as the “dual banking system.”  Separately, the Office of Thrift Supervision, or OTS, is the chartering authority and primary regulator of all federal and many state-chartered thrift institutions, including savings banks and savings and loan associations.  The OTS, like the OCC, is a bureau of the Treasury Department.  All federal credit unions are chartered and supervised by the National Credit Union Administration.

La definición es mas legalista que económica y además extemporánea con respecto al periodo que estudian en el artículo. Por lo tanto no aclara mucho.  Si quieres más claridad, tendrás que leer el artículo.

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