HPC-Aplicaciones: la energia de fusión nuclear, imposible sin computación Exaescalar.

Es bien conocido que la mejor alternativa energética es la fusión nuclear. En éste interesante artículo (http://ascr-discovery.science.doe.gov/universities/exa_fusion4.shtml) se habla sobre la necesidad de desarrollar la tecnología de computación Exaescala para poder realizar las simulaciones que harán posible un uso comercial de la fusión nuclear. Algunos extractos del artículo:

The models that will point the way to commercially viable fusion energy will depend on exascale computing and other new technologies developed along the way“…

…”In the coming years, computer science and applied mathematicians will have to devise new algorithms to deal with ever-increasing concurrent operation in advanced HPC platforms, along with improved methods to manage, analyze and visualize the torrent of data more powerful simulations and larger experiments, such as ITER, will generate“…

…”Computer simulation is and will continue to be the only game in town for examining some aspects of fusion energy technology, says Zhihong Lin, a professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Irvine“…

…”Much of Lin’s research focuses on the plasma, often referred to as the “fourth state of matter.” Plasma, which comprises more than 99 percent of the visible universe, is a gas of charged particles, electrons and ions that is six times hotter than the sun’s core. ITER’s plasma will fuse particles and release energy. Lin and fellow scientists model plasma turbulence and transport of energetic alpha particles the fusion reaction produces“…

…”Plasma simulations also must model the kinetic dynamics governing individual particles in complex three-dimensional systems. Kinetic simulations involve accurately representing the movement and interaction of billions or trillions of individual electrons and ions, including positively charged alpha particles ejected from atomic nuclei. The models must track the particles in multiple dimensions – their velocity, for instance, as well as their location in space”…

…”Alpha particles generate heat that should make the fusion reaction self-sustaining, but they also excite electromagnetic instabilities that induce the particles to escape, possibly damaging the reactor walls”…

…” For most of the problems, like turbulence, we’re talking about how the alpha particles excite the turbulence and how the turbulence leads to the transport of the alpha particles. They can’t be treated as a fluid element. You have to treat the movement of individual particles” – potentially billions or trillions of particles”.

Para realizar estas simulaciones tan masivas de partículas, los investigadores han desarrollado dos aplicaciones, GTC y GYRO, que resuelven las mismas ecuaciones de manera diferente. Quieren realizar simulaciones del mismo fenómeno con ambas aplicaciones y ver si obtienen el  mismo resultado. 

In general, Tang says, higher physics fidelity FES models and access to exascale computers have the potential to accelerate progress toward a clean-energy future. This will require “more realistic predictive models that are properly validated against experimental measurements and will perform much more effectively on advanced HPC platforms” 

En fin que sin computación de orden Exaescala, complicado…



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